There is considerable culinary usage of green leaf vegetables and wild plants amongst the residents, especially those with insular heritage, such as the immigrants from Crete. [13], The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of which is almost entirely drawn from its cemeteries. The Hagia Sophia is an enormous architectural marvel in Istanbul, Turkey, that was originally built as a Christian basilica nearly 1,500 years ago. It was the first known democracy in the world. The report concluded that Israel's blockade of Gaza was legal but that Israel used "excessive and unreasonable" force when boarding the ships. His stance outraged Kurds in Turkey, who have long felt oppressed by the government. Alexander the Great re-founded the city at a new location beyond the Meles River around 340 BC. [citation needed], Byzantine Empire 395–1076

On Aug. 17, 1999, western Turkey was devastated by an earthquake (magnitude 7.4) that left more than 17,000 dead and 200,000 homeless. Old Smyrna on a small hill by the sea was large enough only for a few thousand people. to service the massive amounts of goods arriving or departing from the man-made harbor and from caravans traveling the ancient Royal Road. ), Religions: Islam (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews). Alexander had defeated the Persians in several battles and finally the Emperor Darius III himself at Issus in 333 BC. The upper city of İzmir was captured from its Aydinid rulers by the Ottomans for the first time in 1389 during the reign of Bayezid I, who led his armies toward the five Western Anatolian Beyliks in the winter of the same year he had come to the throne. A new provincial system has been introduced into the region from the 630’s onwards, built around units of local government called “themes” . By this date, Asia Minor was also one of the main centres of a new religion, Christianity. The population declined drastically, and, although the region remains within the Byzantine empire – and indeed, is the key recruiting ground for the Byzantine army – it ceased to be the location for numerous and wealthy cities. Members of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria kidnapped 49 people from the Turkish consulate in Mosul, Iraq, in June 2014. The period after the 1960s and the 1970s saw another blow to the fabric of İzmir, when local administrations tended to neglect İzmir's traditional values and landmarks. The acronym stands for "E elektrik (electricity); S su (water); H havagazı (gas); O otobüs (bus) and T troleybüs (trolleybus)."