It is doubtful if this doctrine could be evolved from the Vedic heaven and earth as Father and Mother and the Vedic Aditi, without some outside contri­bution which assigned to the female aspect a position of requisite importance.

Certain powers relating to the early stages of the world are attributed to the various gods in the Vedas, but God as creator is not an aspect of the Vedic texts. Śaivism & Śiva, (C) 2013 Buddhism and Religions / Red Zambala, Plato (c. 428 – 348 BC) | Dialogues | Index, Christian Non-Violence and Pacifism Philosophy | Index, Milesian School Philosophy | Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes | Index, George Berkeley | Philosophy & Biography | Index. Within the last century our knowledge of the non-Vedic elements in the evolution of Indian thought has greatly increased from the dis­covery of the remnants of an ancient civilization in the Indus Valley, in places known as Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.

One may not know enough to follow some arguments, but the tracing back of certain themes to Mesopotamian ones, the decipherment of the fish and star (suggested before Parpola, and which others like Iravatham Mahadevan concur with), the growing morsels of evidence connecting Indus icons to the earliest history of Tamil South India (some Tamil tribes, as is well known, claim lineage from Punjab) - all of this still amounts to a fragmented and incomplete picture, but no one is better at taking you through it than Asko Parpola. From the Brāhmaṇas and the Upaniṣads, which interpret the ritualism and the philosophy of the Vedas respectively, to the works of Kumārila Bhaṭṭa and Śaṅkarācārya it is a long leap. These works, along with epics like Maṇimekhalai, all belonging to the early centuries of the Christian era, contain much of philosophy and controvert many of the Buddhist and the Jain doctrines. [65] Her worship was accepted in the northern parts of India with various names as Devi, Ksetradevata etc. It is not merely in temples that the Divine was present, but also in certain localities in this world. I have already congratulated Asko with the Vedic benediction to live 'a hundred autumns (saradas satam)' to write more books like this.

Although our knowledge of Proto-Dravidian vocabulary, especially compound words, is deplorably defective, it nevertheless allows some cross-checking."

The dancer throws rice on the audience and distributes turmeric powder as symbols of blessing. The tri-mūrti (the triad of divinity) had thus also a female aspect. [52] Early iconography of Seyyon[53] and Sivan[54][55][56] and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to Indus Valley Civilization.

The offering of soma at the sacrifices formed the most important feature of the religious life of the people among the Vedic Āryans. The forest plays no part in the civilization of the Brāhmaṇas either. The interpretations restrict themselves to ancient Indian astronomy and time-reckoning and its associated mythology, the chief deities of Hindu and old Tamil religion and the fertility cult associated with fig trees. The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature. Worship of the Divine in a more concrete form leads to higher thinking about God and the universe and their mutual relations.

[69] Among the early Dravidians the practice of erecting memorial stones “Natukal’' had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about 16th century.