However, it is beyond doubt that the promotions of papal relatives to the College of Cardinals were common in 13th century. (Animals) Also called: cardinal grosbeak or redbird (US)a crested North American bunting, Richmondena (or Pyrrhuloxia) cardinalis, the male of which has a bright red plumage and the female a brown one  The term cardinal is from the latin word "cardo" meaning a hinge. , In previous times, at the consistory at which the pope named a new cardinal, he would bestow upon him a distinctive wide-brimmed hat called a galero. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. "cardinal patriarchs") would also be cardinal bishops, ranking after the six cardinal bishops, who are of the Roman rite, of the suburbicarian sees. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. For a period ending in the mid-20th century, long-serving cardinal priests were entitled to fill vacancies that arose among the cardinal bishops, just as cardinal deacons of ten years' standing are still entitled to become cardinal priests.  The first known cardinal-nephew after 1059 is Anselm of Lucca, the nephew or brother of Pope Alexander II (1061–1073), although until the end of 12th the majority of the alleged cases of such appointments are dubious, either because the relationship between the Pope and cardinal is not proven, or because the cardinalate of the papal kinsman is uncertain. When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the highest ranking cardinal, was formerly the longest serving cardinal bishop, but since 1965 is elected by the Latin Church cardinal bishops from among their number, subject to papal approval.  Another papal historian Ludwig von Pastor notes that "the misfortune of Pope Pamphilj was that the only person in his family who would have had the qualities necessary to fill such a position was a woman". Likewise the Vice-Dean, formerly the second longest serving, is also elected. , Instruzione al cardinal Padrone circa il modo come si deve procurare una fazione di cardinali con tutti i requisiti che deve avere per lo stabilimento della sua grandezza ("Instructions to the chief cardinal on how to create a faction of cardinals with all the requisites for the establishment of his grandeur"), discovered in the archive of the Santa Maria de Monserrato offers advice to cardinal-nephews for consolidating power within the College of Cardinals.  The Cardinal Nephew was also the captain-general of the papal army and a "channel through which flowed benefices one way and gold the other". Cardinal deacons have long enjoyed the right to "opt for the order of cardinal priests" (optazione) after they have been cardinal deacons for 10 years.  During the 19th century, the only nephew of a Pope created cardinal was Gabriele della Genga Sermattei, nephew of Pope Leo XII, created cardinal by Pope Gregory XVI on February 1, 1836.
A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") is a leading bishop and prince of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church.Their duties include participating in papal consistories, and conclaves when the Holy See is vacant.